Facts About Heat

Applied heat technology is the basis of all Master Appliance products. Definitions of some of the basic principles of heat flow:

Heat is the form of kinetic energy which causes a rise in temperature in a body as it is absorbed or a reduction in temperature as it is lost to the environment.

Temperature differential is the driving force of heat energy. The greater the temperature differential between two objects, the greater the flow of heat energy from the higher-temperature object to the cooler object.

BTU’s (British Thermal Units) or calories are the units used to measure heat energy. One BTU is equivalent to 252 calories.

Thermal conductivity is the property of material related to its ability to transfer heat through itself. The higher the thermal conductivity of a material, the greater the heat transfer rate. In general, metals have higher thermal conductivity than insulators. Copper and aluminum have higher thermal conductivity than steel, while steel has a higher thermal conductive than wood or plastics.

The heat transfer rate is the quantity of heat flowing per unit of time through an object. It can be measured in BTU’s per minute or by calories per second flowing through a specified area of the object.


Convection – employing a heated fluid such as air to convey heat from the source of the object being heated. Master Heat guns are an example of applied convection.

Conduction – heat transfer within an object. Ultratorches, in the soldering mode, are an example of applied conduction.

Radiation – heat transfer employing electromagnetic waves similar to light or radio wave. This method does not require the presence of solids, liquids or gases to transmit heat energy. The sun is the best example of radiant heat.

Convection Heat/Hot Air

Most Master heat tools use the convection principle to provide hot air for many different applications and processes.

Hot air is particularly well suited for use in a wide variety of applications and processes throughout the industry.

The appropriate Master heat tool is then selected depending on the airflow and characteristics needed to do the job. Temperature is controlled by selecting a proper model or by using one of the variable temperature units. Air flow is determined by the unit selected, its outlet configuration and by specifically designed attachments, if required.

How Master Heat Tools Work

Air is forced through (or over) an electric heating element. In this process, heat energy is transferred from the heating element to the air.

Most Master heat tools use a self-contained motor driven fan to supply the air which is then passed over an electric heating element.

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